To maintain a large flock, the sheep must be able to move from pasture to pasture. This required the development of an occupation separate from that of the farmer. The duty of shepherds was to keep their flock intact, protect it from predators and guide it to market areas in time for shearing. In ancient times, shepherds also commonly milked their sheep, and made cheese from this milk; few shepherds still do this today.
In many societies, shepherds were an important part of the economy. Unlike farmers, shepherds were often wage earners, being paid to watch the sheep of others. Shepherds also lived apart from society, being largely nomadic. It was mainly a job of solitary males without children, and new shepherds thus needed to be recruited externally.
Shepherds were most often the younger sons of farming peasants who did not inherit any land. In other societies, each family would have a family member to shepherd its flock, often a child, youth or an elder who couldn't help much with harder work; these shepherds were fully integrated in society. Shepherds would normally work in groups either looking after one large flock, or each bringing their own and merging their responsibilities.
They would live in small cabins, often shared with their sheep, and would buy food from local communities. Less often shepherds lived in covered wagons that traveled with their flocks. Shepherding developed only in certain areas.
In the lowlands and river valleys, it was far more efficient to grow grain and cereals than to allow sheep to graze, thus the raising of sheep was confined to rugged and mountainous areas. The shepherd's crook is a strong multi-purpose stick or staff, often fashioned with a hooked end.
In modern times, shepherding has changed dramatically. The abolition of common lands in Europe in the eighteenth and nineteenth century moved shepherding from independent nomads to employees of massive estates. Some families in Africa and Asia have their wealth in sheep, so a young son is sent out to guard them while the rest of the family tend to other chores. Wages are higher than was the case in the past. Keeping a shepherd in constant attendance can be costly.
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Also, the eradication of sheep predators in parts of the world have lessened the need for shepherds. In places like Britain, hardy breeds of sheep are frequently left alone without a shepherd for long periods of time. More productive breeds of sheep can be left in fields and moved periodically to fresh pasture when necessary. Hardier breeds of sheep can be left on hillsides. The sheep farmer will attend to the sheep when necessary at times like lambing or shearing.
First Shepherd's Fair was announced to take place in the Cyprus Village of Pachna, on August 31, , in the printed editions of Cyprus Weekly and in the Greek language daily, Phileleftheros. European exploration led to the spread of sheep around the world, and shepherding became especially important in Australia and New Zealand where there was great pastoral expansion. In Australia squatters spread beyond the Nineteen Counties of New South Wales to elsewhere, taking over vast holdings called properties and now stations.
Once driven overland to these properties, sheep were pastured in large unfenced runs. There, they required constant supervision. Lambing time further increased the shepherd's responsibilities.
Shepherding was an isolated, lonely job that was firstly given to assigned convict servants. The accommodation was usually poor and the food was lacking in nutrition, leading to dysentery and scurvy.
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When free labour was more readily available others took up this occupation. Some shepherds were additionally brought to Australia on the ships that carried sheep and were contracted to caring for them on their arrival in the colony. Sheep owners complained about the inefficiency of shepherds and the shepherds' fears of getting lost in the bush.
Typically sheep were watched by shepherds during the day, and by a hut-keeper during the night. Shepherds took the sheep out to graze before sunrise and returned them to brush-timber yards at sunset. The hut-keeper usually slept in a movable shepherd's watch box placed near the yard in order to deter attacks on the sheep.
Dogs were also often chained close by to warn of any impending danger to the sheep or shepherd by dingoes or natives. During the s many shepherds left to try their luck on the goldfields causing acute labour shortages in the pastoral industry. This labour shortage leads to the widespread practice of fencing properties, which in turn reduced the demand for shepherds. An s census of fencing in New South Wales recorded that 2. Boundary riders and stockmen replaced shepherds working on foot, who have not been employed in Australia and New Zealand since the start of the 20th century.
Dumuzid , later known as Tammuz, was an important rural deity in ancient Mesopotamian religion , who was revered as the patron god of shepherds. Metaphorically, the term "shepherd" is used for God, especially in the Judeo-Christian tradition e. Psalm 23 , Ezekiel 34 , and in Christianity especially for Jesus , who called himself the Good Shepherd. It may also be worth noting that many biblical figures were shepherds, among them the patriarchs Abraham and Jacob , the twelve tribes , the prophet Moses , King David , and the Old Testament prophet Amos , who was a shepherd in the rugged area around Tekoa .
In the New Testament , angels announced the birth of Jesus to shepherds. The same metaphor is also applied to priests , with Roman Catholic , Church of Sweden and other Lutheran , and Anglican bishops having the shepherd's crook among their insignia see also Lycidas. In both cases, the implication is that the faithful are the "flock" who have to be tended.
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This is in part inspired by Jesus's injunctions to Peter, "Feed my sheep", which is the source of the pastoral image in Lycidas. The term " Pastor ", originally the Latin word for "shepherd", is now used solely to denote the clergy of most Christian denominations.
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The Good Shepherd is one of the thrusts of Biblical scripture. This illustration encompasses many ideas, including God's care for his people. To avoid these, after about 15 metres go rightwards over the rocky rib to reach a much more amenable descent. If you have novice climbers with you, take note. Please refrain from pushing the cams deeper into the crack as this will only make them harder to remove. Grade range for all climbers. Harder routes not so polished, and definitely not over rated. Remember to check your skin carefully.
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Dutch Shepherd Dog Breed Information & Pictures – Dogtime
Climb name Grade 56 Saturday Night Beaver -. I am currently trying to tidy the fixed gear near the top of Little Chamonix, please either assist in removing this or leave it as you find it. Great crag for it accessibility.